Jul 16 2017

Bank of Canada Interest Rate Changes Review

For those of you that live in Canada, you are no doubt aware that the Bank of Canada recently increased their policy rate from 0.5% to 0.75%.  I heard of a lot of media reporting that said this is the first change in 7 years.  I further read that we could expect further increases in the near future.  Since this policy rate directly impacts the rates that regular consumers get on any new loans and impacts even existing with variable rates, it seemed important to understand how this rate has fluctuated over the years.

To that end I did some research and found that on the official Bank of Canada website, you can download a CSV containing a list of every single day for the last 10 years and what the interest rate was on each of those days.  That is available here:


I wanted to know what the shortest number of days has been between interest rate changes.  Given the large scale impacts of changes to this rate in the country I assumed it would be something that was done exceptionally cautiously and once changed, a long waiting period would take place to review the impact.  According to my research though this assumption doesn’t appear to hold true over the last decade.

First though, a comment on the news reports that this is the “first change in 7 years”.  That claim turns out to be patently false.  The recent change represents the first increase in 7 years.  Over that time frame however we’ve seen 2 decreases to the rate.  Below are my findings:

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Jul 09 2017

HOWTO: PowerShell Function Return Quirk

Have you ever been using PowerShell, created a function that called another function and then tried to return data from the parent function only to discover that the returned data included more ‘stuff’ than you intended? This quick blog post demonstrates why that is and presents one workaround to prevent it in the future.

Consider the code above.  Pay attention to the Run-Function.  Let’s say this function performs some operation and then returns a status code upon completion.  In this example, it is returning “OK”.

You would then expect that the code at the end of the script that captures this return code and then performs and if operation on the result would return “It’s working” since it returned OK.  But it doesn’t.  If we run this code, you know what we get?


Why is that?

It turns out that unlike other programming languages, PowerShell returns everything that happens inside a function regardless if you use the return function or not.  So in the example above, we used Write-Output to write a message to the pipeline.  This was then returned along with the “OK” from the parent function resulting in an array of:

[0] “An important Message”

[1] “OK”

This is why the if ($Status –ne “OK”) doesn’t work since it’s trying to compare an object to a string.

So what’s the fix?  You need to ensure that the ONLY thing your function returns is the data that you want.  In this case, we don’t want Show-OutputMessage to be returned so we have to send its output to Null as in:

$null = Show-OutputMessage

Now the only data being returned is your “OK” status so the if statement works as expected.


The moral of the story is be very careful with what you add to the pipeline while in a function if you care about the return value since it likely isn’t going to be what you expect it to be.

Apr 01 2017

HOWTO: Use Autohotkey to Toggle Windows Based on Window ID

Autohotkey is an invaluable tool for automating tasks we perform hundreds of times per day without even thinking of it.  The tasks many only take a few seconds each, but added up over the course of a year or more, it really adds up!  One such common task involves switching between applications in Windows.  Sure, you can click the application you want on the task bar or use Alt-Tab. But what happens when you have a ton of programs and tabs open?


You have to hunt.


Wouldn’t it be great if you could just press a keyboard shortcut to launch/resume any application?  This is where Autohotkey excels.  You can configure it for example to toggle between applications based on their window title.  But what if you can’t use the window title?  This post shows you how to toggle between an application where the title constantly changes and you otherwise have nothing consistent about the application with which to configure Autohotkey to use.

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Feb 15 2017

HOWTO: Run Process Monitor on a Remote Machine from the Command Line

I have a treat for you today.  I have finally solved something that has been a pain in my side for years now.  Have you ever been in the following situation?

You are reviewing log files and discover that a remote computer (perhaps a virtual machine running on shared storage) is running wild and hammering on the disk.  You need to figure out what exactly what processes and files are causing that disk IO.  However perhaps that computer is always in use and you simply can’t log in locally to launch resource monitor or process monitor.  You need ultimately to run Process Monitor remotely.  Unfortunately you google this and discover that it’s not possible due to the amount of data that process monitor generates and can’t pass it all over the wire.  So what do you do?

I found myself in this exact situation yet again today and finally decided to sit down and solve it once and for all.  My googling revealed a suggestion in some forum to use psexec to run procmon.exe on the remote machine and then copy over the PML file to your machine for analysis.  I’m afraid I couldn’t find that blog post so I can’t give credit to the original author of the idea.  But there is a world of difference between an idea and a practical implementation and that’s what I have to share with you today.

Below is a PowerShell script that includes a function called Get-ProcMonData.  It accepts just two parameters, a -ComputerName for the name of the remote computer you wish to connect to and -Duration for how long procmon will run for on the remote system.  Note that the script is hardcoded to limit you to a maximum of 100 seconds as I discovered the hard way that Procmon generates an enormous amount of data and you can easily fill the remote drive if you’re not careful.

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Feb 02 2017

HOWTO: Add Computer to Group without Restart

Credit where credit is due, this is taken directory from the blog below and is documented here only so I can easily find it again in the future.

Source: https://deployhappiness.com/quick-tip-add-computer-to-group-gpupdate-without-restart

Let’s say you add a computer to a group but you want that computer to gain that membership but can’t restart the system.  What do you do?

From an administrator command prompt type: klist –li 0x3e7 purge followed by gpupdate /force


This will clear the Kerberos ticket and request a new one which will force new group enumeration.

A handy trick to be sure!

Jan 14 2017

HOWTO: Restore Active Directory to a different server

This HOWTO is a proof of concept to demonstrate a way to take an Active Directory environment on one server and restore it to a different server on an entirely different network.  The scenario in this example is we have a domain controller which has a number of other third party applications installed and we wish to migrate just the AD portion to a new dedicated Active Directory server in a separate environment.  Once completed, the old server will be permanently powered off.

We will have two systems, one called PRODDC1.  This is our production system hosting Active Directory and all of our other applications.  The second system is called initially NEWDC1.  This is a fresh copy of Windows 2012 R2 with no configuration of any kind, not even a hostname or IP assigned.  Crucially, these two systems are on isolated networks and cannot see each other.


  • From Server Manager, installed the Windows Server Backup Feature
  • Once installed, run Windows Server Backup and from the left menu choose Backup Once
  • Choose Custom and select only System State


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Nov 18 2016

HOWTO: Get Webroot Endpoints using Unity REST API and PowerShell

Webroot has recently released a new REST API that allows us as administrators to pull detailed endpoint data programmatically. What this effectively means is that all of the information that is presented to us in the Webroot Global Site Manager can now be extracted directly and integrated into other processes. I very much wanted a script that would be able be able to run on a scheduled task and compare all the systems in Active Directory with those registered in Webroot and then report on those AD systems that either do not have Webroot installed or haven’t checked in for more than a week.

It took some reading and trial and error but I managed to create a PowerShell script that can connect to Webroot and pull all of the details for every endpoint for a given keycode into an object which you can then do whatever you want with. I figured I’d save you the frustration of figuring out how to make this. Of course this code is presented as is. It’s working for me but your mileage may vary.

Here’s how it works:

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Oct 30 2016

HOWTO: Check CPU Usage of VMs with VMware Workstation

Do you use VMware Workstation on Windows?  Do you run more than a handful of VMs?  Have you ever had your host CPU pinned by one of the instances of vmware-vmx.exe but the only way you could figure out which VM was the issue was by logging into each one and checking CPU usage there?  I found myself in this situation and figured there had to be a better way.  I realized that each VM runs as its own separate vmware-vmx.exe process.  I further figured out that the .VMX file that includes the name of the running VM is part of the command line arguments used to call it.  Putting this information together, I wrote a simple PowerShell script that is intended to be run on the Windows Host that will show all running VMs and their current CPU usage.  Note that the totals are for each VM, not of the host.  This is why multiple VMs can show 100% usage.

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Oct 25 2016

HOWTO: Write Vietnamese on a computer

I have previously discussed how to use a Windows based computer to write in Japanese and Chinese.  The time has come to tackle the next of the Asian languages, Vietnamese.  As before, the same disclaimer applies.  The information below is what I was able to figure out based on information primary from Google and Wikipedia.  Some or perhaps even much of it may be incomplete but it does appear to at least be logically consistent.  At first I thought typing in Vietnamese would be considerably easier since the language at first blush appeared to use the Roman alphabet, just as English does.  Therefore, I expected it to be as simple as “Select the Vietnamese keyboard and start typing”.  As I started researching however, I found this was not the case at all.

There are a couple of important things to be aware of when trying to write Vietnamese on an English keyboard.  Let’s assume you’ve used the “Language” Control panel applet and added the “Vietnamese” language already.  Once installed, you press the “Preview” button to see what the keyboard looks like this:


The first thing that will probably jump out at you is that all of the numeric digits on the keyboard have been replaced with special characters along with the open and closed square brackets, dash and equals keys.  Why is that?  To understand this, we’ll have to look at how the Vietnamese alphabet is constructed.

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Oct 18 2016

Deploy Office 365 and HA ADFS From Scratch

Are you interested in Office 365 and ADFS but are intimidated by it and not sure where to begin?  If that’s the case, you’ve come to the right place.  I have been studying to write my 70-346 (Managing Office 365 Identities Exam) and realized that I was still really weak on ADFS and how all the pieces work together.  I decided I wanted to build a fully fleshed out ADFS environment in my own lab complete with a new Office 365 tenant and ADFS configured in high availability with the recommended 4 servers (redundant federation and redundant proxy servers). So that’s what I did and I’m going to walk you through the entire setup, starting from the very beginning.


All the links download are free for testing purposes. To follow along with this HOWTO you will need:

Description URL/Notes
Registered Domain Including access to modify public DNS records – I used www.vanlab.net
Purchased SSL certificate that you have saved as a .PFX file I recommend a wildcard certificate.  I used one from www.cheapsslsecurity.com
Office 365 for Business Trial Setup  https://products.office.com/en-us/business/office-365-for-business-free-trial
Access to a phone Capable of receiving text messages or phone calls
PFSense Firewall  https://pfsense.org/download/
Windows 2012 R2 180 Day Trial  https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/evalcenter/evaluate-windows-server-2012-r2
Windows 10 Enterprise 90 Day Trial  https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/evalcenter/evaluate-windows-10-enterprise
Exchange 2016  https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=49161
Microsoft Unified Communications Managed API  http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?linkId=258269
Office 2016 Administrative Templates  https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=49030
Microsoft Online Services Sign-In Assistant  https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=41950
Azure AD Module  http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?linkid=236297

Credit where credit is due.  This HOWTO is based on basic ADFS deployment documentation found here: :

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